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Norwegian Large Language Models


Welcome to the emerging collection of large-scale contextualized and generative language models for the Norwegian language. NorLM (or, more recently, NORA.LLM) originated as a joint initiative of the projects EOSC-Nordic (European Open Science Cloud), SANT (Sentiment Analysis for Norwegian), and HPLT (High-Performance Language Technologies), in collaboration with the AI Laboratory of the National Library of Norway and the National e-Infrastructure Services, coordinated by the Language Technology Group (LTG) at the University of Oslo.

We are working to provide these models and supporting tools for researchers and developers in Natural Language Processing (NLP) for the Norwegian language. We do so in the hope of facilitating scientific experimentation with and practical applications of state-of-the-art NLP architectures, as well as to enable others to develop their own large-scale models, for example for domain- or application-specific tasks, language variants, or even other languages than Norwegian.

Under the auspices of the NLPL use case in EOSC-Nordic, we are coordinating with colleagues in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden on a collection of large contextualized language models for the Nordic languages, including language variants or related groups of languages, as linguistically or technologically appropriate.

Available Models

At this initial stage of development, Norwegian models for two common architecture variants are available:

We emphatically welcome all kinds of user feedback, including of course suggestions for improvement or suggestions for additional types of Norwegian contextualized language models or associated tools. Please contact us via the Nor(aL)LM technical coordinator, Andrey Kutuzov.

License and Access

All Norwegian language models from the NorLM initiative are publicly available for download under open source licenses, either from the NLPL Vectors Repository, or through the Huggingface Hub. NorBERT, NorT5, and the newer generative models are also directly supported in the Huggingface Transformers Library.

Related Work

Our paper Large-Scale Contextualised Language Modelling for Norwegian was presented at the 2021 Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics (NoDaliDa).


The NorLM resources are being developed on the Norwegian national supercomputing services operated by UNINETT Sigma2, the National Infrastructure for High Performance Computing and Data Storage in Norway. Software provisioning was financially supported through the European EOSC-Nordic project; data preparation and evaluation were supported by the Norwegian SANT and the Horizon Europe HPLT projects. We are indebted to all funding agencies involved, the University of Oslo, and the Norwegian tax payer.